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Tema: Vipassana

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  1. #1
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    21 ago, 13
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    Buenos dias, ¿alguien se anima a explicarnos la relación entre el Vipassana tal como se practica en Occidente, tal como lo enseña el Sr. Groenka y la tradición Theravada completa?

    Un abrazo.

  2. #2
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    21 ago, 13
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    Por si interesa a alguien, me medio-auto-respondo:

    The vipassanā movement, also called the Insight Meditation Movement, refers to a number of branches of modern Theravāda Buddhism which stress insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain awakening and reach Nirvana.

    It finds its origins in modernist influences[1] on the traditions of Burma, Laos, Thailand and Sri Lanka, and the innovations and popularizations by Theravāda teachers as Mahasi Sayadaw ("New Burmese Method"), Ledi Sayadaw (the Ledi lineage), Anagarika Munindra and Pa Auk Sayadaw as well as nonsectarian derivatives from those traditions such as the movement led by S. N. Goenka (with his co-teacher wife Illaichi Devi) who studied with teacher Sayagyi U Ba Khin.

    The vipassanā Movement includes contemporary American Buddhist teachers such as Joseph Goldstein, Tara Brach, Gil Fronsdal, Sharon Salzberg, Ruth Denison and Jack Kornfield. The two major institutions in the USA are the Insight Meditation Society (IMS) in Barre, Massachusetts and its sister center, Spirit Rock Meditation Center in Marin County, California. [2] A major feature of the Vipassana movement is that it is a lay movement, practiced by non monastics. The Vipassana movement also generally tends to de-emphasize the religious elements of Buddhism such as "rituals, chanting, devotional and merit-making activities, and doctrinal studies" and focus on meditative practice. According to Jack Kornfield, “We wanted to offer the powerful practices of insight meditation, as many of our teachers did, as simply as possible without the complications of rituals, robes, chanting and the whole religious tradition.” [3]

    Meditation techniques

    The vipassanā movement emphasizes the use of vipassanā to gain insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain awakening. Its goal is stream entry, the first stage of enlightenment.[4] According to Lance Cousins the primary source of the Insight meditation movement's practice "is the commentarial writings of Buddhaghosa, particularly the Visuddhimagga." [5]

    The various movements espouse similar meditation techniques. Teachers with the vipassanā movement teach forms of samatha and vipassanā meditation consistent with Buddhist meditation.
    Schools and traditions

    Burmese Theravāda Buddhism has had a profound influence on modern vipassanā practice.
    The Mahasi ("New Burmese") Method

    The "New Burmese method" was developed by U Nārada and popularized by his students Mahasi Sayadaw (1904-1982) and Nyanaponika Thera (1901–1994). Most senior western vipassana teachers (Goldstein, Kornfield, Salzberg) studied with Mahasi Sayadaw and his student Sayadaw U Pandita.[6] Another prominent teacher is Bhikkhu Bodhi, a student of Nyanaponika.

    According to Gil Fronsdal:

    An important feature of the “Mahasi approach” is its dispensing with the traditional preliminary practice of fixed concentration or tranquilization (appana samadhi, samatha). Instead, the meditator practices vipassana exclusively during intensive periods of silent retreat that can last several months with a daily schedule of meditation from 3:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Two key elements in Mahasi’s method for developing mindfulness are the careful labeling of one’s immediate experience together with the cultivation of a high level of sustained concentration known as “momentary concentration”(khanika samadhi).[7]

    The Ledi lineage

    The Ledi lineage begins with Ledi Sayadaw and his student U Ba Khin (1899-1971).[8] S.N. Goenka is a well-known teacher in the Ledi-lineage. According to S. N. Goenka, vipassanā techniques are essentially non-sectarian in character, and have universal application. One need not convert to Buddhism to practice these styles of meditation. Meditation centers teaching the vipassanā popularized by S. N. Goenka exist now in Nepal, India, Asia, North and South America, Europe, Australia, Middle East and Africa.

    In the tradition of S.N.Goenka, vipassanā practice focuses on the deep interconnection between mind and body, which can be experienced directly by disciplined attention to the physical sensations that form the life of the body, and that continuously interconnect and condition the life of the mind.[9] The practice is usually taught in 10-day retreats, in which 3 days are given to the practice of calming meditation through anapanasati and the rest of the time is given to vipassanā in the form of "body sweep" practice in which the meditator moves through the body in sections, paying attention to the various sensations that arise without reacting to them. According to Bhikkhu Analayo, "this form of meditation has by now become what probably is the most widely taught form of insight meditation world-wide." [10]

    Ruth Denison is another senior teacher of the U Ba Khin method.
    Pa Auk Sayadaw

    The method of Pa Auk Sayadaw is closely based on the Visuddhimagga, a classic Theravada meditation manual. Pa Auk promotes the extensive development of the four jhanas, states of meditative absorption and focus. The insight element is based on surveying the body by observing the four elements (earth, water, fire and wind) by using the sensations of hardness, heaviness, warmth and motion. [11] Western teachers who work with this method include Shaila Catherine, Stephen Snyder and Tina Rasmussen.
    Mogok Sayadaw

    Mogok Sayadaw taught the importance of the awareness of noticing the 'arising' and 'Passing away' of all experience as to way to gain insight into impermanence. Mogok Sayadaw emphasized the importance of right understanding and that a meditator should learn the theory of Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada) when practicing vipassana. The Mogok vipassana Method focuses on meditation of Feeling (Vedanannupassana) and meditation on Mind states (Cittanupassana).
    Anagarika Munindra

    Anagarika Munindra studied with both S.N. Goenka and Mahasi Sayadaw, and combined both lineages. Dipa Ma was a student of him.[8]
    Thai Forest Tradition

    While not a lay movement, the Thai Forest Tradition has been influential in the development of the lay meditation movements. This is a tradition of Buddhist monasticism within Thai Theravāda Buddhism which was in part a reaction against this perceived dilution in Buddhism. Practitioners inhabit remote wilderness and forest dwellings as spiritual practice training grounds. It is widely known among Thai people for its orthodoxy, conservatism, and strict adherence to monastic rules (vinaya).

    Perhaps its most widely known representative was Ajahn Chah. Jack Kornfield, one of the main western teachers of Insight meditation, trained as a monk under Ajahn Chah. Ajahn Sumedho is the senior Western representative of the Thai forest tradition, he was the abbot of Amaravati Buddhist Monastery (1984-2010). A well-known American monk in this tradition is Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu, abbot of Metta Forest Monastery in San Diego County. Western representatives of the Thai forest tradition are known to teach lay practitioners at the monasteries and to visit lay meditation centers to teach.
    United States

    Since the early 1980s, insight meditation has been one of the fastest growing Buddhist meditation practice in the United States. [12] Apart from the major centers of IMS and Spirit rock, there are the various centers teaching SN Goenka's vipassana practice and various independent teachers. The movement began when Jack Kornfield and Joseph Goldstein taught a series of classes at Naropa University in 1974 and began teaching a series of retreats together for the next two years. The retreats were modeled on 10 and 30 day Goenka retreats, and the technique taught was mainly based on Mahasi Sayadaw's practice (with the inclusion of Metta meditation). [13] In 1976 Kornfield and Goldstein, along with Sharon Salzberg and Jacqueline Schwartz founded the Insight Meditation Society in Barre, Massachusetts.

    Insight meditation practices have also influenced the discipline of psychotherapy. This is especially prominent in Jon Kabat Zinn's MBSR. [14]


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